Animal Travels: Peru

PERUVIAN WOOLLY MONKEY
(Lagothrix cana)
Endangered

57bafda8408a8.image.jpgMAJOR THREATS
This species is heavily hunted and infants are much favoured as pets. The females with offspring tend to be targeted by hunters, so that they can sell the infants as pets. Hunting is the main threat prior to deforestation, and colonization severely reduces their numbers.  Heavy deforestation also occurs in many parts of this species’ range.

FUN FACT
Can move at speeds of up to 35mph.


HUMBOLDT PENGUIN
(Spheniscus humboldti)
Vulnerable

Humboldt_penguin.jpgMAJOR THREATS
Fisheries in Peru exploit the main prey of the penguins, greatly reducing their prey base.
Alien species such as rats predate on the eggs of the penguins and also on young chicks. There have also been reports of feral cats on the islands in Peru which can cause a predation risks to both adult and juvenile individuals.
Andean foxes can enter coastal reserves in Peru and prey on the adult and juvenile penguins.
Humboldt Penguins are extremely sensitive to human presence which reduces the success of breeding at frequently visited sites.
These penguins are also at risk from habitat loss and pollution.

FUN FACT
Humboldt penguins were named for the German scientist, Alexander Von Humboldt, who explored Cuba, Mexico, and South America in 1799.


SCARLET MACAW
(Ara macao)
Least Concern

scarlet-macaw-pictures.jpg
MAJOR THREATS
There are currently no major threats to the Scarlet Macaw but their population trend is currently decreasing. It is predicted that the population of Scarlet Macaws will drop by around 25% in the next 3 generations.

 

 

FUN FACT
They are said to have the intelligence of a 4-8 year old child.

 

 


AMAZON RIVER DOLPHIN (BOTO)
(Inia geoffrensis)
Data Deficient

shutterstock_164233874-1024x679.jpgMAJOR THREATS
Accidental death in fishing gear such as in gill nets. 
Deliberate killing for fish bait.
Fishing with explosives although illegal in most places is still common in areas of the Amazon.
Damming of rivers.
Between 1956 and the early 1970s, more than 100 botos were live-captured and exported mostly to the USA, Europe and Japan

FUN FACT
These dolphins are PINK!


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Animal Travels: Antarctica

Antarctica is over 5 million square miles and has some extremely well adapted species living there!


PENGUINS
There are six species of penguin that call Antarctica home.

  1. Aptenodytes_forsteri_-Snow_Hill_Island,_Antarctica_-adults_and_juvenile-8.jpgEmperor Penguin
    (Aptenodytes forsteri)
    Near Threatened
    595,000 mature individuals remaining in the wild with no current major threats.
  2. 152708-004-5B3C83E2.jpgChinstrap Penguin
    (Pygoscelis antarcticus)
    Least Concern
    Declining population trend can be attributed to threats from recent volcanic activity, human disturbances of breeding colonies and the harvesting of Antarctic krill which makes up the bulk of their diet.
  3. gentoopenguin.jpgGentoo Penguin
    (Pygoscelis papua)
    Least Concern
    774,000 mature individuals.
    Major threats come from the collection of eggs and disturbances from tourism which decrease breeding productivity.
  4. main-qimg-84bebfb4702b4086740772ded2d31fd8-c.jpegAdelie Penguin
    (Pygoscelis adeliae)
    Least Concern
    7580,000 mature individuals remaining in the wild and an increasing population trend.
    Their major threats come from climate change, the building of research stations which change their habitat and from the disturbance from tourists and scientists.
  5. Right-Whale-Bay-King-Penguin-1.jpgKing Penguin
    (Aptenodytes patagonicus)
    Least Concern
    Increasing population trend but faces threats from increasing sea temperatures, disturbance from helicopter flights which causes breeding failure; and disturbances from scientists and tourists.
  6. Macaroni_penguin.jpgMacaroni Penguin
    Eudyptes chrysolophus)
    Vulnerable
    Decreasing population trend which has faced major threats from commercial fishing, the warming of oceans, disturbance from scientists and tourists. Also increasing numbers of Fur Seal is leading to increased predation.

KILLER WHALE
(Orcinus orca)
There are 5 types of Orca in Antarctic waters.

  1. antarctic_type_a.jpgType A
    A very large orca: reaching lengths of up to 31 feet.
    Hunt Minke whales.
  2. Pitman whale and seal.jpgType B Large
    Also known as Pack Ice Orcas.
    Hunt seals and are famous for their “wave-washing” hunting technique.
  3. 17b769b5aef86dc4c15d519f3e4b3f60-nature-animals-wild-animals.jpg
    Type B Small
    Also known as Gerlache Orcas.
    They are believed to feed on penguins.
  4. full_Paul_Ensor__Gateway_Antarctica__University_of_Canterbury_5322_small.jpgType C
    Also known as the Ross Sea Orca.
    They are the smallest orcas reaching lengths of 20 feet.
  5. image_1172_1-killer-whale-type-d.jpgType D
    These are Subantarctic orcas.
    They look different from other orcas and are easily distinguished by their large melon.
    Very little is known about these orcas.

To read more about orcas, you can read my post “All About Killer Whales


Leopard-Seal-1.jpgLEOPARD SEAL
(Hydrurga leptonyx)
Least Concern
18,000 mature individuals remaining in the wild.

MAJOR THREATS
There are no major threats from human activity currently. However, climate change is leading to loss of sufficient pack ice for pupping and resting. There is also becoming less penguins available as prey for the leopard seals.

 

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Animal Travels: Holland

With 2119 square miles of space and a population of almost 6 and a half million, Holland has its own ‘Big Five’. The Red Deer, Wild Boar, Roe Deer, Badger and the Red Fox.

RED DEER
(Cervus elaphus)
Unknown.jpegThe Red Deer is classified as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List and they have an increasing population trend.

HABITAT AND DIET
Red Deer can found in a range of habitats including: open deciduous woodland, mixed forests and coniferous woodland, upland moors and mountainous areas; but they prefer broadleaved woodland that is interspersed by large meadows. Red Deer feed mainly of shrub and tree shoots but they will sometimes dine on grasses, fruits and seeds.

MAJOR THREATS
Red Deer are facing trouble from habitat loss and overhunting. They are also susceptible to the spread of parasites and diseases from introduced species.

WILD BOAR
(Sus scrofa)
Wild-Boar-1_public-640x425.jpgThese mammals are classified as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List however, their current population trend is unknown.

HABITAT, DIET AND BEHAVIOUR
Again, Wild Boars can be found in a wide variety of habitats, whether that is temperate and tropical habitats such as semi-desert regions and tropical rainforests. They can also inhabit temperate woodlands and grasslands. Wild Boars are omnivorous, although vegetable matter makes up around 90% of their diet. These Boars are most active in early mornings and late afternoon and they spend around 4-8 per day foraging.

MAJOR THREATS
Globally, there are no major threats to Wild Boars; but locally, they can be susceptible to habitat destruction and hunting pressures.

ROE DEER
(Capreolus capreolus)
Roe-deer-buck-moulting-into-summer-coat%2c-Pigneys-Wood%2c-Julian-Thomas%2c-11-May-2015-(small).jpgAgain, the Roe Deer is classified as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List with an increasing population trend. There are around 15 million mature individuals remaining in the wild.

HABITAT
These deer prefer landscapes with a mosaic of woodland and farmland.

MAJOR THREATS
There is an increased mixing of various genetic pools which could leave the Roe Deer susceptible to diseases and parasites. They also face danger from poaching, free-roaming dogs and collisions with vehicles.

CONSERVATION
There have been re-introductions of Roe Deer into depleted populations.

EURASIAN BADGER
(Meles meles)
140506.jpgThe Eurasian Badger is another species that is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List. These Badgers currently have a stable population trend.

HABITAT AND DIET
Badgers prefer either deciduous woods with clearings, or open pastureland with patches of woodland. They are opportunistic foragers with an omnivorous diet, feeding on fruits, nuts, cereal crops, invertebrates and some vertebrates such as hedgehogs, moles and rabbits.

MAJOR THREATS
Land use changes have caused a loss of suitable habitat for the badgers. Badgers are also persecuted as a pest and in places like the UK they are believed to be associated with bovine TB and so this lead to a cull. Also, rabies reduced numbers of badgers throughout Europe.

RED FOX
(Vulpes vulpes)
150px-Red_fox.jpgThe final of Holland’s ‘Big Five’ is also classified as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List with a stable population trend.

HABITAT
The Red Fox can survive in extremely diverse habitats such as the tundra, deserts and forests as well as in city centres. Their natural habitat is a dry, mixed landscape with scrub and woodland. Foxes now appear to be closely associated with people and so can be found wherever there is human life.

MAJOR THREATS
Threats to Red Foxes are highly localised and include habitat degradation, loss and fragmentation. Globally, Red Foxes don’t face any major threats. The Red Fox is classed as a pest and so is unprotected throughout all its range. In the future, this could potentially cause problems.

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